Fifth, China has had little success in cooperating with third countries on specific projects in Africa. For example, on all its projects on the continent, it has concluded only a $14 billion trade agreement with Spain for investments in the Democratic Republic of Congo and is working with Italy on a water diversion project in Chad and on the construction project of the Puntland airport in Somalia.  There are only five African countries – Eritrea, Benin, Mali, Sao Tome and Principe and Eswatini (Swaziland) – that have not signed a MOU and have not expressed their support. However, China continues to advance its presence in these countries relentlessly. Recently, it began investing in the kok gold mine in Eritrea. Benin`s president has asked local company Petrolin and French giant Bollore to pull out of a major rail infrastructure project linking Benin to Niger to make way for China.  In addition, China has signed $11 billion in agreements with Mali to finance two transnational rail projects to link inland lands to the coast. Meanwhile, in May 2017, Sao Tome and Principe changed their loyalty from taiwan`s recognition to the acceptance of the “one China policy.” On April 1, 2019, it reached an agreement with China to accelerate the implementation of projects to be funded by China, including direct support for the 2019 general budget. The increase in Chinese investment should gradually encourage some of these countries to sign or express their official support in the future.  Fourth, China has only been able to build transnational projects in Africa if there is a deficit or a vacuum in strong governance between countries. For example, it appears to have made significant progress in the country-to-country rail project, Mali and Guinea; Chad-Cameroon pipeline; Sudan Railway Line (Sudan Port) – Chad-Niger-Mali-Senegal (Port of Dakar) Central African Republic and Chad Project (Transaqua Project).  By way of comparison, China has imposed restrictions on transnational projects in its BIS projects in countries where regional constraints supported by strong regimes have created restrictions, as in neighbouring West Asia, where there are tensions between Qatar and its neighbours; Israel and its Arab neighbours; Saudi Arabia and Iran.  At a cost of $4 trillion to $8 trillion, BIS wants to connect 65 countries from Asia to Europe via Africa.
Over the next three decades, Beijing plans to establish a vast network of domestic and maritime transport infrastructure, including ports, railways, roads, pipelines and supply networks, to link China`s economic engine to the rest of Asia, Africa and Europe.